Coastal land, Islands, and the sea.

The Earth – Land Scape and Sea Scape

  • High Seas: open Ocean several miles or more from shore.
  • Ocean: Any of vast, connected bodies of salt water that cover almost three-fourths of the earth’s surface.
  • Oceanfront: Land directly along seashore.
  • Offshore: Designating Area Sea laying a short way from beach.
  • Pelagic: Of or on the open sea.
  • Sea: Large of salt water, general landlocked and smaller than the ocean; also used as synonym for ocean.
  • Seaboard: Seashore.
  • Sea cliff: Steep slope overlooking ocean.
  • Sea coast: Land situated along ocean.
  • Seascape: View or scene of sea or ocean.
  • Seashore: Land at the edge of sea, esp. beach; seaboard.
  • Seastrand: Long section of seashore.
  • Seaway: Deep inland water way connecting with sea.
  • Shoreline: Edge of land where a large body of water meets land.
  • Shore: land bordering a sea of ocean; coast.
  • Marine : Of or at the sea or ocean.
  • Polynya: Area of open water enclosed by sea ice.
  • Reef: Ridge of rock or coral just under water surface.
  • Ria: Long narrow inlet where sea has overflow river valley.
  • Riviera: Coastal region of sea used as a resort area.
  • Archipelago: Group of sea islands, esp. in curved row.
  • Arm: Narrow inland extension of sea.
  • Cape : Point of land extending into water peninsula.
  • Estuary: point where river mouth meets sea’s tide arm of sea at river mouth.
  • Floe: Large, flat mass of ice floating on sea.
  • Bay : body of water forming indentation on shoreline of sea or large lake wide intel of sea smaller than the gulf.
  • Gulf: section of ocean that extends into land, larger than a bay.



Tarmac – Hard Black Material

Tarmac is a hard black material used for roads, parade ground or anywhere, that a hard, even and durable surface is needed. It is a mixture of tar and macadam, which consists of hundreds of tiny even sized chips of granite pressed together.

Macadam is named after a Scotsman, john Loudon mac Adam, who first used it in the 18th century. Until mac Adam’s time, roads where tracks sometimes covered with stones, which easily got muddy and waterlogged. The unevenness made travelling so uncomfortable. Mac Adam, who was on the roads committee in his home county of Ayrshire in Scotland, wrote several books about road building. He persuaded the government to let him make experiments which resulted in vastly improved highways.

The original macadam is still used on roads and looks much better than tarmac.

Source: collected from books.


Know Your Brain

Our brain controls everything that happens in our body. In the form of nerve impulses, information travels to and from the brain along the thick bundle of nerves in our spinal cord. The brain is the only organ that can make decisions about actions, based on past experience (stored information), present events and future plans.

What do we have inside the brain?

Our brain is made up of millions of neurons. it is protected by the skull and cushioned by a thin layer of liquid called cerebrospinal fluid. The brain has four main parts : the cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and brain stem.

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It controls most physical activities, and many mental activities, such as thinking and learning. It also controls the cerebellum which in turn co-ordinates muscle movement and balance.

The diencephalon has two parts. The thalamus sorts out impulses as they enter the brain, and directs them to other parts of the brain for processing. The hypothalamus plays a vital role in homeostasis. It controls hunger, thirst body temperature, and the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The brain stem controls automatic functions; such has our heartbeat and breathing. It contains three parts: the pons, medulla, and midbrain.

Areas of cerebrum: cerebral cortex forms the outer layer of cerebrum. It can be divided in to three types of areas. They are: Sensory areas that receive information from all part of our body, such as the eyes and ears; association areas analyses the information and make decisions. Motor areas send orders for action to muscles or glands.

There are two halves in cerebrum which are known as cerebral hemispheres. These two are joined by the corpus callosum, which is a thick band of nerve fibres. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body or deals with different skills. For example in right-handed people, the left hemisphere controls the use of language, while right side specializes in recognizing objects. In most left-handed people it is the other way.

Memory: There are two different types of memory. Motor-skills memory which helps us to remember how to do actions, such as walking or riding a bicycle.

Factual Memory enables us to remember specific pieces of information.

There are also two levels of memory. Short-term memory which stores information for only a few minutes. Anything that we can remember for longer is in our long-term memory. Information can be stored in our long-term memory for up to a lifetime.

Brain waves: The electrical impulses between nerve cells in our brain can be detected through our skull by sensor pads called electrodes. The patterns or brain waves are recorded on a chart called an electroencephalogram (EEG). Doctors use EEG to find out if a person’s brain is working normally. There are four types of brain waves – Alpha waves show when we are awake, but disappear during sleep; Beta waves show when we are thinking, or receiving impulses from our senses; Theta waves show EEGs of children and adults suffering from stress or some brain disorders; and delta waves and sleeping adults. They can be a sign of brain disorder in an adult who is awake.


The Depth Of The Oceans Measured

The depth of the oceans is measured in fathoms. A fathom is six ft. Scientists who study the oceans are called oceanographers. Since the deep ocean is cold and dark, we really know very little about it. Parts of the ocean floors have been seen through the eyes of deep-sea cameras, but it still amounts to very little information.

One of the things we are interested in is the depth of the ocean. Finding the depth of the water is called “sounding the depth” or “taking a sounding”. In the olden days, this was done by lowering a rope with a weight attached. Later on, a very light line, usually made of piano wire, was used.

The invention of echo sounder enabled the scientists to get a better idea of what the ocean floor is like. An echo sounder uses the echoes of sound to explore the ocean floor.

On board the ship, a device sends out a sound signal. The sound travels through the water at nearly one mile a second. It is reflected or echoed, back to an instrument on the ship. The deeper the water, the longer it takes for the echo to reach the ship.

In the modern echo sounder, high-frequency sound waves are beamed down from the ship. The instrument then records the echo as a dark mark on special paper. The paper is usually printed so that the depth can be read off in fathoms right away.

The echo sounder makes it easy to find the depth of the sea. But it does much more.. It provides a much more. It provides a continuous profile, or line, showing exactly what the ocean floor is like beneath the ship. This is like having a sounding every few yards along the path of the ship. If the ship passes over an undersea mountain, the echo sounder records the exact shape of the mountain. And if the bottom is flat, the record shows it as flat. The echo sounder does not miss a bump even a few feet high.



Always look at the bright side of the thing

Everything has two sides – The bright and the dark, as I would wish to put it, the bright and the less bright.

A king had a dream in which he found that all his teeth had fallen out. He wanted an interpretation of the dream. A dream interpreter was sent for. He consulted the ancient book and said the king, “sir, this is a most unfortunate dream. It signifies that all your dear ones – children, wife, and relatives – will die during your life time”

The king was disappointed and ordered that the soothsayer be thrown in to prison.

Another dream – interpreter was called for. He too consulted the same ancient books and said, “O king, this is a most fortunate dream. It signifies that you will survive all your dear ones. Long live the king.
The king felt happy and richly rewarded the soothsayer. Both statements have the same meaning. But it is the way you put it or look at it that matters.


The Earth- landscape and sea scape

  • Ravine: Narrow, steep – sided depression in earth’s surface formed by running water larger than a gully, smaller than a canyon.
  • Gully: Channel or small valley worn in earth by running water.
  • Intervene: Tract of land along river.
  • Kloof: Deep gorge or ravine (South Africa).
  • Serac: Tall peak or mass of ice projecting upward from glasier.
  • Nunatak: Hill or mountain totally uncircled by glacial ice.
  • Hill: usually rounded elevation of land, smaller than a mountain.
  • Hill lock: Small hill.
  • Hill side: One slope of hill.
  • Hill top: Peak, crest, are ridge of hill.
  • Knap: Summit, hill top
  • knoll:small rounded hill
  • Monticule: Secondary cone of volcano.
  • Range: series of connected mountain.
  • Recess: Cleft in earth of ten concealed from view.
  • Rincon: Small, secluded valley; sharp recess in cliff.
  • Sink: Depression in earth’s surface without drainage often saline lake.
  • Sink hole: lime stone hollow connected to underground passage.
  • Step toe: isolated hill or mountain surrounded by lava
  • Vista: Height affording view over large expanse of land
  • Tundra: level, treeless plain in arctic region with dark wet soil on base f permanently frozen of sub soil  
  • Vega: flat, barren plain (Spain).
  • Salt flat: Level tract in stage between saline lake and salt flat.
  • Saline: Saline marsh or spring.
  • Salt Pan : Undrained natural depression in which evaporation of water leaves deposit of salt.



Real Potential and Goals

A boy found an eagle’s egg and put it in the nest of a chicken. The eagle hatched with the brood of chicks and grew up with them. All his life, the changing eagle- thinking he was a chicken – did what the other chicken did. He scratched in the dirt for seeds and insects to eat more than a few feet of the ground. After all, that is how ordinary chicken were supposed to fly.

Years passed. And the challenging eagle grew very old. One day, he saw a magnificent bird far above him in the cloudless sky. Hanging with graceful majesty on the powerful wind currents, it soared with scarcely a beat of its strong golden wings.

“What a beautiful bird! What is it?” he exclaimed.

“That’s the golden eagle, the chief of all the birds, “his chicken brother clucked “but don’t give it a second thought. You could never be like him” “So the challenging eagle never gave it another thought. And it died thinking it was an ordinary chicken.


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